Active Verbs for Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy
The information below provides definitions and attributes for each of the six levels of Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy, along with Active Verbs that should be used when developing learning outcomes. (Adapted from: L.W. Anderson and D.R. Krathwohl (2001), A taxonomy of learning , teaching, and assessing (Boston: Allyn and Bacon); Center for University Teaching, Learning, and Assessment, University of West Florida).
LEVEL 1: REMEMBER
Level Definition & Attributes: Students are able to exhibit memory of previously learned materials by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts, and answers.
Active Verbs: choose, define, find, how, label, list, match, name, omit, recall, relate, select, show, spell, tell, identify, describe, copy, locate, recognize, memorize, quote, reproduce, tabulate, discover, duplicate, listen, enumerate
Example of Learning Outcomes: Physics: By the end of this course, students will be able to recite Newton’s three laws of motion.
LEVEL 2: UNDERSTAND
Level Definition & Attributes: Students are able to demonstrate understanding of facts and ideas by interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing and explaining main ideas.
Active Verbs: classify, compare, contrast, extend, demonstrate, explain, illustrate, infer, interpret, outline, relate, rephrase, show, summarize, select, translate, describe, paraphrase, ask, differentiate, discuss, express, distinguish, restate, group
Example of Learning Outcomes: History: By the end of this course, students will be able to explain the causes of the French Revolution.
LEVEL 3: APPLY
Level Definition & Attributes: Students are able to solve problems in new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way.
Active Verbs: calculate, predict, apply, solve, illustrate, use, demonstrate, determine, model, build, construct, develop, experiment with, identify, make use of, organize, plan, select, solve, utilize
Example of Learning Outcomes: Engineering: By the end of this course, students will be able to calculate the kinetic energy of a projectile.
LEVEL 4: ANALYZE
Level Definition & Attributes: Students are able to examine and break information into parts by identifying motives, causes and relationships. They can make inferences and find evidence to support generalization.
Active Verbs: classify, outline, break down, categorize, analyze, diagram, illustrate, assume, compare, conclusion, contrast, discover, dissect, distinguish, divide, examine, function, inference, inspect, list, motive, relationships, simplify, survey, take part in, test for
Example of Learning Outcomes: English: By the end of this course, students will be able to determine William Shakespeare’s point of view in terms of his political perspective.
LEVEL 5: EVALUATE
Level Definition & Attributes: Students are able to present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas, or quality of work based on a set of criteria. They can justify a decision or course of action.
Active Verbs: design, formulate, build, invent, create, compose, generate, derive, modify, develop, agree, appraise, assess, award, choose, compare, conclude, criteria, criticize, decide, deduct, defend, determine, disprove, estimate, evaluate, explain, influence, judge, interpret, justify, mark, measure, perceive, prioritize, rate, recommend, rule on, select, support, value
Example of Learning Outcomes: Economics: By the end of the course, students will be able to apply discrete and continuous probability distributions using industry standard statistical software, in order to evaluate the probability of real world events.
LEVEL 6: CREATE
Level Definition & Attributes: Students are able to compile, generate or view information, ideas or products together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or by proposing alternative solutions.
Active Verbs: adapt, build, change, choose, combine, compile, compose, construct, create, delete, design, develop, discuss, elaborate, estimate, formulate, happen, imagine, improve, invent, make up, maximize, modify, originate, plan, predict, propose, solve, suppose, test, hypothesize, substitute, compile, develop, rearrange, anticipate, assemble, collaborate, collect, devise, imagine, intervene
Example of Learning Outcomes: Chemistry: By the end of this course, students will be able to design and execute synthetic and analytical experimental procedures found in the scientific literature in physical and inorganic chemistry.